How much do you know about export packaging requirements for lithium batteries and lithium battery equipment?
Lithium batteries are widely used in personal consumer goods, industrial production, transportation and other industries. Especially in daily life, lithium batteries can be seen almost everywhere, such as mobile phone power supplies, electric vehicle power supplies, charging treasures, common electric garden tools, and automatic sweeping robots, all of which contain lithium batteries.
On the one hand, lithium battery products bring convenience to our lives. On the other hand, due to product characteristics, lithium batteries have great potential dangers, and subsequent safety accidents occur from time to time. Compared with other accidents, the occurrence time is shorter and shorter. It is difficult to completely extinguish it, and it will cause serious personal and property damage.
From the fire of the Samsung Note7 mobile phone battery in 2016 to the fire on the plane at Pudong Airport in July 2020, especially the fire in the cargo compartment of a COSCO SHIPPING international trade container ship in January 2020, affected by it There were 131 containers, which caused huge losses. All these accidents remind us all the time: the safety risks of lithium battery products always exist.
Classification of lithium batteries
The first category is lithium batteries shipped separately. Lithium batteries, as a type of batteries that use lithium metal or lithium alloys as positive/negative electrode materials and use non-aqueous electrolyte solutions, can be divided into lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries. Lithium metal batteries contain metallic lithium and are usually not rechargeable, while lithium ion batteries do not contain metallic lithium and can be recharged. When shipped separately, their corresponding UN numbers are 3090 and 3480.
The second category is lithium batteries shipped with equipment. In actual trade and transportation, lithium batteries are often transported together with equipment. There are mainly two situations. One is that the battery is installed in the device, and the other is that the battery is packaged with the device. Regardless of the above situation, according to whether it contains metallic lithium or not, the corresponding UN numbers are 3091 and 3481 respectively.
The third category is equipment or vehicles powered by lithium batteries. In recent years, various new energy vehicles powered by lithium batteries have emerged in an endless stream, including bicycles, cars, balance cars and so on. The International Maritime Dangerous Regulations have assigned UN number 3171 to this product.
Relevant laws and regulations
The inspection and supervision of lithium batteries and lithium battery products are mainly based on the United Nations "Model Regulations on the Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods", the United Nations "Test and Standard Manual on the Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods", and the International Maritime Organization's "International Maritime Transport of Dangerous Goods Regulations" , International Civil Aviation Organization "Technical Regulations for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air" and "Inspection Regulations for the Packaging of Export Dangerous Goods" (SN/T0370.1-2009) (SN/T0370.2-2009) (SN/T0370.3-2012), etc. wait.
For example, the "International Maritime Transport of Dangerous Goods Regulations" requires that exported lithium batteries must pass the UN38.3 test and provide a summary of the test. Each cell and battery pack shall be fitted with a safety vent, and in the event of an ordinary accident, it shall be designed to prevent damage by force; each cell and battery pack shall be fitted with effective means of preventing external short circuits; each containing Battery packs of multiple parallel batteries or battery series must be equipped with effective devices (such as diodes, fuses, etc.) required to prevent reverse current from causing danger; manufacturers of batteries and battery packs must establish a good quality management system, etc..
Packaging requirements for export lithium batteries and lithium battery equipment
The following requirements are mentioned in the packing guideline P903 of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods List. It is divided according to different product categories, and this guideline is applicable to related goods under UN3090, 3091, 3480 and 3481.
1. For batteries or battery packs packed in containers, protective measures shall be taken to prevent the cells or battery packs from being damaged due to movement or position changes in the container. The packaging must meet the performance indicators for packing group II. For cells or batteries with a total weight of 12 kg or more, a strong, impact-resistant casing, and a collection of such cells or batteries, a strong outer packaging, protective cover, pallet or other handling equipment is also required. Likewise, such cells or batteries shall be secured against accidental movement and the electrodes shall not bear the weight of other stacked items.
2. Cells or batteries packed together with equipment, except that its container must meet the performance indicators of packaging group II, and the equipment must be fixed and must not be moved in the outer container. The cell or battery pack is also completely encased.
3. In addition to meeting the previous requirements, the battery or battery pack installed in the equipment should have measures to prevent accidental activation during transportation. Also protect the cells or battery pack from short circuits.
4. When the package contains a combination of the lithium battery in the device and the lithium battery packed with the device, the packaging should be marked "lithium metal battery UN3091 or lithium ion UN3481 put together with the device". If a package contains both lithium ion and lithium metal batteries, the package shall be marked for both battery types.
In addition to several key points in the International Maritime Dangerous Regulations Packaging Guidelines P903, there are the following key points of inspection and supervision that need to be paid attention to:
One is that whether it is a lithium-ion battery pack or a lithium-ion battery pack contained in or packaged with equipment, the watt-hour ratio must be marked on the outside of the container.
Second, lithium battery products do not apply to limited packaging, nor do they apply to exempt packaging.
The third is that the package must be marked or marked exclusively for lithium batteries. Lithium batteries or lithium battery packs that comply with Article 188 use the "rectangular mark". Other lithium batteries or lithium battery packs use the "diamond mark" of Class 9 dangerous goods. However, it is not excluded that some countries and regions require the two signs to be posted at the same time, as long as the company provides a statement of the situation.